Int J Esthet Dent 13 (2018), No. 1 12. Feb. 2018
Background: Establishing the diagnosis of a particular clinical situation in the oral cavity must take many characteristics into consideration, with gingival phenotype being an important one because it is linked to every individual's gingival morphogenic characteristics, including soft tissue appearance, genetic characteristics, and the way the gingiva looks after manipulation.
Materials and methods: In this study, 294 patients were observed. Fifty patients were selected according to certain exclusion criteria. Patients were submitted to clinical intraoral examinations, and photographs were taken of the anterior maxillary area. Comparing the left and right sides of the anterior maxillary area, the variables analyzed were the crown width/crown length ratio, papilla height, gingival width, gingival thickness, gingival angle, and gingival asymmetry.
Results: A statistical relation between gender and gingival thickness was not proven (P > 0.05), neither was that between shape and gingival thickness. However, this relation has statistical significance to gingival thickness and all analyzed variables (P < 0.001), as well as gender and papilla height (P = 0.005), crown width/crown length ratio (P = 0.017), and gingival angle (P = 0.041). A positive relation between the GLA angle measured from both sides was also found (correlation = 0.675), as well as for LID values (correlation = 0.384). The absolute asymmetry value was 2.8 degrees, showing different measurements from each dental arch side.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there is a strong association between gender and the following variables: crown width/ crown length ratio, papilla height, and gingival angle. It was also demonstrated that a correlation exists between gingival thickness and all the variables studied. Moreover, the influence of tooth form on the gingival characteristics studied was demonstrated.