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International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry  (English Edition)



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Int J Esthet Dent 4 (2009), No. 1     20. Feb. 2009
Int J Esthet Dent 4 (2009), No. 1  (20.02.2009)

Page 28-45, PubMed:19655644

Gingival Recession Following Apical Surgery in the Esthetic Zone: A Clinical Study with 70 Cases
Arx, Thomas von / Salvi, Giovanni E. / Janner, Simone / Jensen, Simon S.
The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the mid-facial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out using photographs taken at pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up appointments. In addition, changes in the gingival margin (GM) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated with the use of clinical measurements, that is, pre-treatment and 1-year follow- up pocket probing depth and level of gingival margin. Changes in GM and CAL were then correlated with patient-, tooth-, and surgery-related parameters. The following parameters were found to significantly influence changes in GM and CAL over time: gingival biotype (P < 0.05), with thin biotype exhibiting more gingival recession than thick biotype; pre-treatment pocket probing depth (PPD) (P < 0.03), with cases of pre-treatment PPD < 2.5 mm demonstrating more attachment loss than cases of PPD >= 2.5 mm; and type of incision (P < 0.01), with the submarginal incision showing considerably less gingival recession compared with the intrasulcular incision, papilla-base incision or papillasaving incision. The visual assessment using pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up photographs did not demonstrate significant changes in gingival level or papillary height after apical surgery. In conclusion, gingival biotype, pre-treatment PPD, and type of incision may significantly influence changes in GM and CAL following apical surgery in maxillary anterior teeth.