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International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry  (English Edition)



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Int J Esthet Dent 10 (2015), No. 3     15. July 2015
Int J Esthet Dent 10 (2015), No. 3  (15.07.2015)

Page 456-467, PubMed:26171447

Comparative study of two surgical techniques for root coverage of large recessions in heavy smokers
Reino, Danilo M. / Maia, Luciana P. / Novaes jr., Arthur B. / Souza, Sérgio L. S.
Reduced root coverage due to diminished periodontal vascularity can be expected in heavy smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root coverage obtained for large gingival recessions in heavy smokers using two different surgical techniques. Twenty heavy smokers were selected. Each patient had large, bilateral Miller class I or II gingival recessions (Control Group (CG): 3.30 ± 1.29; Test Group (TG): 3.45 ± 0.80) on nonmolar teeth. Clinical measurements of probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession height (RH), keratinized mucosa height (KMH), and keratinized mucosa thickness (KMT) were determined at baseline and after 12 months. One side received a coronally positioned flap (CPF), while the contralateral side received the extended flap technique (EFT), both procedures carried out in conjunction with a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Saliva samples to measure cotinine levels were taken at baseline and after 12 months as an indicator of the level of exposure to nicotine. Intergroup and intragroup analysis showed no statistical differences for the evaluated clinical parameters. Patients maintained the same exposure to smoke during the evaluation period. Both techniques resulted in low root coverage (CPF: 48.60%; EFT: 54.28%), but both techniques were effective in decreasing the gingival recessions (P ≤ 0.01). The variables smoke exposure, root coverage, and the thickness and height of keratinized tissue were subjected to linear regression. Regardless of the surgical technique used, heavy smoking strongly limits root coverage, especially for large recessions.